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India's Journey Towards Energy Independence: Transitioning to a Sustainable Future


India' Journey Towards Energy Independence | StepChange


India's Remarkable Energy Transformation

India's energy landscape is undergoing a remarkable transformation as the country emerges as an advanced energy superpower. As the world celebrates Global Energy Independence Day on July 10th, it is crucial to highlight India's remarkable progress in transitioning towards renewable energy sources and reducing its reliance on fossil fuels.


Today, as we mark Global Energy Independence Day, it is fitting to highlight the remarkable progress India has made in transforming its energy landscape and cementing its status as an advanced energy superpower.


India's energy journey over the past decade has been nothing short of remarkable. Once heavily reliant on fossil fuels, the country has undergone a profound shift towards renewable energy sources, driven by ambitious targets, strategic policy frameworks, and a steadfast commitment to sustainable development.


According to the World Economic Forum, India is now the world's 3rd largest renewable energy producer, with an installed capacity of over 200 GW as of 2024. This remarkable achievement is the result of a concerted effort to harness the country's abundant solar, wind, and hydropower resources.


The growth in India's renewable energy sector has been truly staggering. In the last 9 years, the country's solar energy capacity has increased by an astounding 30-fold, reaching 84.27 GW as of May 2024. Similarly, wind power capacity has more than doubled, standing at 46.92 GW. These impressive figures underscore India's determination to transition away from fossil fuels and embrace a cleaner, more sustainable energy future.


India has set ambitious targets to meet 50% of its electricity requirements from renewable energy sources by 2030. This commitment is already bearing fruit, as the country has surpassed its initial Paris Agreement pledge by generating 40% of its power from renewable sources. The rapid growth of solar energy, in particular, has been a driving force behind this progress, with solar capacity increasing by over 40% in 2022 alone


Green Hydrogen: A Key Component of India's Energy Transition

But India's energy transformation goes beyond just renewable electricity generation. The country has also made significant strides in the production of green hydrogen, a crucial fuel for decarbonizing hard-to-abate sectors. India has set an ambitious target of producing 5 million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2030, supported by 125 GW of renewable energy capacity.


This commitment to green hydrogen aligns with India's broader goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2070, as pledged at the COP26 climate summit. The country's Panchamrit strategy, which includes a target of 500 GW of non-fossil fuel-based energy capacity by 2030, further demonstrates its unwavering dedication to a sustainable energy future.


India's energy transition has been a remarkable success story, with the country making significant strides in renewable energy deployment without compromising energy security or affordability. This achievement is largely attributed to the government's strategic investments in grid modernization, energy storage, and transmission infrastructure.


Grid Modernization: Enabling Renewable Energy Integration

India has been at the forefront of grid modernization efforts, recognizing the crucial role of a resilient and efficient power grid in supporting the country's renewable energy goals. The government has invested heavily in upgrading and expanding the transmission and distribution networks to accommodate the increasing share of variable renewable energy sources.


Key initiatives in this direction include:


  • The Indian government has launched the Green Energy Corridor project to strengthen the interstate transmission system and enable the integration of renewable energy. This involves building new transmission lines and substations.

  • Strengthening the existing transmission system: The Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCIL) is investing heavily in upgrading transmission infrastructure. Between 2016-17 and 2022-23, PGCIL added about 103,490 ckt. km of transmission lines and 425,587 MVA of substation capacity.

  • Forming joint ventures with state utilities: Entities like PGCIL have been actively forming joint ventures with state utilities to enhance transmission investments and optimize transmission lines

  • Adopting new technologies: Advanced planning and the deployment of cutting-edge technologies, such as high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission and flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS), have been crucial in modernizing the grid and addressing sector challenges


Energy Storage: Ensuring Grid Stability and Reliability

Energy storage has emerged as a critical component in India's energy transition, providing the necessary flexibility and stability to the grid. The government has been actively promoting the development and deployment of energy storage technologies to support the integration of renewable energy sources.


Some key initiatives in this domain include:



Transmission Infrastructure: Strengthening Interconnectivity

Investments in transmission infrastructure have been a key focus area for India, as the country recognizes the importance of interconnectivity in enhancing energy security and fostering economic growth. The government has been actively pursuing initiatives to strengthen the transmission network and promote regional/cross-border power system integration.


Notable efforts in this direction include:


  • Championing the One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) initiative: India is actively promoting the OSOWOG initiative, which aims to establish a global grid that will transfer solar power across the world.

  • Exploring transnational grid interconnections: The government is exploring the potential of transnational grid interconnections to enhance energy security, foster economic growth, and facilitate universal energy access.


These strategic investments in grid modernization, energy storage, and transmission infrastructure have been instrumental in ensuring the reliable and efficient integration of renewable energy sources into India's national grid. By prioritizing these critical areas, India has been able to achieve its ambitious renewable energy targets without compromising energy security or affordability.


Moreover, India's energy policies have been designed to attract foreign direct investment, fostering a thriving renewable energy ecosystem that includes domestic manufacturing, research and development, and international collaborations.


As we celebrate Global Energy Independence Day, India's remarkable progress in the energy sector serves as an inspiration to the world. The country's transformation from a fossil fuel-dependent economy to an advanced energy superpower is a testament to the power of ambitious goals, strategic planning, and unwavering commitment to sustainable development.


India's energy journey is far from over, but the progress made thus far is a clear indication that the country is well on its way to achieving energy independence and leading the global transition towards a clean energy future.

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